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神學與分享1
談「決志」//   黎萬豐
 
    有一個笑話這樣說,一個很餓的人,拿了10個饅頭在啃,吃到第九個的時候,他還是覺得很餓,就繼續吃最後一個饅頭,然而當他吃到一半時,發現自己已經飽了,當下覺得很嘔,早知道吃半個就飽了,為什麼吃了九個半呢?這個笑話其中的一個反思,就是經驗主義,很多人都用自己的經驗來解讀這世上的現象或人生哲理。比方「善有善報,惡有惡報」的理論,因為有些惡人在這世上大享美福,佛教就提出「三世因果」的理論,說這個人上輩子積善太多,所以這輩子雖然作惡多端,但仍可享福。
    「經驗主義」在大部分的事上是成立的,但是在某些事上卻不一定。以上面「三世因果」的理論,在聖經真理的光照下,是不成立的。
    現在我們就來談「決志」這個在基督教裡面很流行的術語,在聖經真理的光照下,是否成立?
    在一般的佈道會或個人談道的最後階段,傳道者會邀請聽道者做一個抉擇,決定是否要接受耶穌基督做個人的救主?如果願意,傳道者就會為他禱告,並宣告他已成為神的孩子了。這個結果有兩個,一是這人真的重生得救了,從此在教會熱心事奉;另外一個是失敗,這人沒有進到教會,或是進到教會做個掛名的基督徒。
    前者進到教會後也熱心傳福音,也接受教導如何去傳福音,並在最後呼籲人決志。對這人來說,這一切都是那麼地合理,也切乎他個人的經歷。
    那麼聖經如何說呢?約翰福音一章13節說人成為神的兒女不是從血氣、情慾、人意生的,乃是從上帝生的。既然是上帝生的,就不是人可以自己決定的,就像我們都不是自己決定要被生下來,或生在怎樣的家庭裡面。哥林多前書十二3節後半說:「若不是被聖靈感動的,也沒有能說耶穌是主的。」以弗所書二8節說:「你們得救是本乎恩,也因著信,這並不是出於自己,乃是上帝所賜的。」這些經文清清楚楚告訴我們,我們的重生得救不是自己決志來的,乃是上帝奇妙的作為導致的結果。
    為什麼聖經如此清楚的記載,我們卻如此的忽視呢?就是一開始提到的經驗主義的副作用,我們太習慣用經驗來解讀許多的現象,因此我們對這麼清楚的經文視而不見,繼續地用「決志」來引人信主。
    「決志信主」有何副作用?第一就是繼續活在自己的經驗中,這是一種舊生命的型態,雖然外表熱心,但裡面的生命沒有甚麼進步和改變;其次是對聖經真理選擇性的接受,因為總是要切合自己的經驗,對那些如天方夜譚的教導,如愛你的仇敵,就解讀成盡力而為就好,而不是看成是和不可殺人的誡命一樣的嚴重;第三是最常見的問題,就是以弗所書二9節說的,自誇為義,認為自己的得救是因為自己比較聰明、有智慧,或比較善良;最後一個問題,就是要人學自己依樣畫葫蘆,有禱告病得醫治的就到處宣傳只要禱告就得醫治,把上帝的主權拋在一邊,自己當上帝,去承諾上帝不一定會做的事。
    雖然「決志」這一個概念是不合聖經的,但也不是甚麼毒蛇猛獸的做法。如華達博士(Dr. C. F. W. Walther,1811-87)在Law and gospel 一書中提到的,「一個人在任何信條上犯錯就不能得救」是錯誤的認知,所以錯誤的「決志」觀也不會影響人的得救與否,但卻會影響福音的傳播。
    打開好消息頻道,總是看到牧者們聲嘶力竭地呼喊教會要復興,喊了多年,仍然在喊,表示教會依然故我,沒甚麼進步,原因在我們對聖經真理的冷漠,我們喜歡一些可以操控運作的東西,我們不喜歡人的重生得救是人力幫不上忙的。願看到此文的基督徒們,好好思考「決志」在你生命中所帶出來的影響。


神學與分享2
關於婦女在教會的角色相關問題的回應 Eugene L. Boe, PhD, June 15, 2021 鮑尤金博士,2021 年 6 月 15 日
 石崇原教師譯A Response to Questions on The Role of Women in the Church 關於婦女在教會的角色相關問題的回應 Eugene L. Boe, PhD, June 15, 2021 鮑尤金博士,2021 年 6 月 15 日
Introduction Thank you for the opportunity to participate in your study of the very important questions of the ordination of women and their role in the church. I will in this paper respond to your questions in regards, to the CLBA “The Role of Women in the Church, 2012,” Draft Paper. I will also review the relevant sections of Teaching Resource Paper: “An Exegetical Study of Scripture related to Gender and the Office of Pastor and Elder” in 2014 as they relate to the selected topics of 2012 paper. I will in the third section give A Biblical Overview of the Pastor/Elder/Overseer Office and Women in the Church. I have been asked to address the topic: "If scripture does not forbid it, why does the CLBA recommend that women not be allowed to preach in CLBA churches (from “The Role of Women in the Church, 2012,” draft paper lines 229-257)." 前言: 感謝各位給我這個機會參與在您們對於女性按牧以及她們在教會裡的角色的相關討 論。以下我將提供 2012 年所呈給路德信友教會(CLBA)的初稿「婦女在教會中的角色」。 其次,我也將回顧 2014 年發表,做為本會教導資源的文章「關於性別和牧師/長老職分的 一個釋經研究」的部分內容,這些內容和 2012 年的文章有很多的關聯。第三部分我將提 出一個關於「教會中的婦女與牧師/長老/監督的職分」的聖經綜述。 一直以來都有人希望我回答這個問題:「如果聖經並沒有禁止,那為什麼路德信友 教會並不贊成讓女性在路德信友教會所屬的堂會中講道?」(「女性在教會中的角色」, 行 229-257)。 CLBA “The Role of Women in the Church, 2012,” Draft Paper 路德信友教會「婦女在教會中的角色」,2012,初稿 Background to the 2012 paper 2012 年的報告的背景 Before addressing the topic, I want to present some background information in regards, to the draft paper, that was presented to the CLBA in 2012 from which your question comes. 2 2 At the 2008 Church of the Lutheran Brethren Convention the delegates voted to “recommend that a study of the role of women in ministry be a priority for the newly established Theological Council.” A draft paper was prepared by the Theological Council and presented to the Church of the Lutheran Brethren in 2012. Some important points to remember about this draft paper are the following: 在討論這個議題之前,我希望交代一下這篇報告當時的背景。這篇報告的初稿是在 2012 年呈給路德信友教會的。 在 2008 年路德信友教會的年會中與會代表透過投票,建議「關於婦女在事工中角色的研 究成為新成立的神學委員會的優先工作」。神學委員會隨即起草了一篇報告並於 2012 年 提交給路德信友教會。這篇報告有一些重要的論點: 1. The 2012 paper was not intended to address the question of the ordination of women since the CLBA was committed to continue in agreement with the CLBA Statement of Faith that states: “The office of Pastor and Elder is to be filled by men only.” 2012 年的報告並沒有處理女性按牧的問題,因為路德信友教會堅定地持守與其信 仰聲明一致的立場,認為「牧者和長老的職分僅能由男性出任」。 2. The 2012 paper was to address the need for further clarification and how we practically apply our theology on the role of women in ministry. 2012 年的報告試圖處理進一步需要釐清的問題並思考我們的神學如何應用在婦女 在事工中角色的議題當中。 3. The paper was presented as a paper in process submitted to the church for study and comment through December 2012. Therefore, it was a draft paper and was not intended to be adopted nor was it adopted as a teaching resource for the congregations. 這篇報告僅是一份草擬中的文件並於 2012 年呈付給總會,作為總會更進一步的研 究和邀請評論之用。因此,這僅僅只是一份初稿,並不希望被任意引用,特別是 作為對會眾的教導使用。 4. The Theological Council requested and received feedback from congregations and individuals on the draft paper. 神學委員會邀請各堂會和個人針對初稿提供回應意見。 5. Upon reviewing the feedback, the Theological Council prepared a new resource paper entitled: “An Exegetical Study of Scripture related to Gender and the Office of Pastor and Elder” in 2014. This paper was presented and received as a teaching resource for 2 3 the congregations which functions as a guide for congregations and their leaders in congregational ministry. 在蒐集各方的回應意見後,神學委員會擬定了一份新的教導資源報告,題目是: 「關於性別和牧師/長老職分的一個釋經研究」,於 2014 年發表。這篇論文作為教 導資源向地方堂會發表,提供地方堂會和教會領袖在教會事工上的指引。 Analysis of “May women preach to or teach a congregation in a public worship service? (Lines 229-257? 解析「婦女是否可以在公開崇拜聚會中向會眾講道或教導?」(229-257 行) Turning now to the topic: "If scripture does not forbid it, why does the CLBA recommend that women not be allowed to preach in CLBA churches (“The Role of Women in the Church, 2012,” lines 229-257)." 現在讓我回應這個主題:如果聖經並沒有禁止,為什麼路德信友教會不建議讓婦女在路德 信友教會所屬的堂會中講道(「婦女在教會中的角色」,2012,229-257 行) I believe that the paragraph which includes lines 231-237 was unclear. It states: 我認為文中 231-237 行這個段落是不清楚的,它這樣說: Strictly speaking, the Bible does not forbid a woman from preaching to a congregation in a public worship service. Nor do Scriptures such as 1 Corinthians 14:35 and 1 Timothy 2:11 prohibit women from teaching the Bible to men or speaking in public. Again, whatever a non-ordained male may do in the church, a woman may also do. So if gifted non-ordained males are on occasion invited to publicly preach and teach the Word under the authoritative teaching and leadership of the ordained pastor and elders, what would prevent gifted women from being invited to do the same? On the surface, nothing would seem to prevent women from preaching and teaching in a public worship service. 「嚴格來說,聖經並沒有禁止婦女在公開崇拜聚會中對會眾講道。聖經如哥林多前 書 14:35 和提摩太前書 2:11 也沒有禁止女性向男性教導聖經,或公開演講。再說 一次,凡是沒有被按立的男性在教會可以做的,女性同樣可以做。所以,如果在被 按立、有教導權柄和領導權的牧師長老下,有恩賜、未受按立的男性偶而受邀請進 行公開講道、並教導神的道,有甚麼理由不讓有恩賜的女性受邀做同樣的事呢?表 面上來看,並沒有理由禁止女性在公開聚會中對會眾講道和教導。」 2 4 The meaning of “Strictly speaking” is unclear. What does “strictly” mean? Also, 1 Corinthians 14:35 “If there is anything they desire to learn, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is shameful for woman to speak in church,” does seem to speak to the question of a woman preaching to a congregation unless a distinction is being made between speaking and preaching. Further, 1 Timothy 2:11 “Let a woman learn quietly with all submissiveness,” also does seem to speak to a woman preaching to a congregation. Therefore, to say as the 2012 paper said that these two passages do not prohibit women from teaching the Bible to men or speaking in a public worship service does not appear to be based upon a careful study of these texts. 這裡所謂的「嚴格上來說」意思並不明確。「嚴格地」是甚麼意思呢?此外,除非 我們將講道和在聚會中發言視為兩件不同的事,不然哥林多前書 14:35 所說的「他們若要 學甚麼,可以在家裡問自己的丈夫,因為婦女在會中說話原是可恥的」顯然和聖經是否允 許女性講道有關。更進一步說,提摩太前書 2:11「女人要沉靜學道」也同樣和是否允許 女性講道有關。因此,2012 年的報告中認為這兩段經文並沒有禁止女性向男性教導聖經 或在公開崇拜聚會中演講的說法可謂是缺乏對這兩段經文的細查。 It is my interpretation that: “Strictly speaking, the Bible does not forbid a woman from preaching to a congregation in a public worship service. Nor do Scriptures such as 1 Corinthians 14:35 and 1 Timothy 2:11 prohibit women from teaching the Bible to men or speaking in a public worship service. Again, whatever a non-ordained male may do in the church a woman may also do,” was presented as representing a possible belief/position that may have been held by some people in regards, to the question “May women preach to or teach a congregation in a public worship service?” Therefore, if what is asserted in lines 231 – 234 is true then the question, “So if gifted non-ordained males are on occasion invited to publicly preach and teach the word under the authoritative teaching and leadership of the ordained pastors and elders, what would prevent gifted women from being invited to do the same?” is answered in the negative. The paper’s response is not so certain for it says: “On the surface, nothing would seem to prevent women from preaching and teaching in a public worship service.” Here another ambiguous expression is used, “on the surface,” which can mean in a superficial manner. Therefore, I believe one could say that if it is true that: “Strictly speaking, the Bible does not forbid a woman from preaching to a congregation in a public worship service. Nor do Scriptures such as 1 Corinthians 14:35 and 1 Timothy 2:11 prohibit women from teaching the Bible to men or speaking in public. Again, whatever a non-ordained male may do in the church a woman may also do.”, then on the surface i.e., superficially there seems to be nothing that would prevent women from preaching and teaching in a public worship service. 我的理解是,該文的這段陳述:「嚴格來說,聖經並沒有禁止女性在公開崇拜聚會中對會 眾講道。聖經如哥林多前書 14:35 和提摩太前書 2:11 也沒有禁止女性向男性教導聖經, 或公開演講。再說一次,凡是沒有被按立的男性在教會可以做的,女性同樣可以做。」在 於呈現和表達一些人可能對於「女性是否能夠在公開崇拜聚會中向會眾講道或教導」存在 的想法或立場。因此,如果 231-234 行的這個論點為真,那麼接下來的問題「如果在被按 2 5 立、有教導權柄和領導權的牧師長老下,有恩賜、未受按立的男性偶而被邀請公開講道、 教導神的道,有甚麼理由不讓有恩賜的女性受邀做同樣的事呢」的答案必須是否定的。這 篇報告的回應並不是非常明確,它說「表面上來看,並沒有理由禁止女性在公開聚會中對 會眾講道和教導。」在這裡出現另一個含糊的詞彙「表面上來看」。表面上來看可以指非 常粗淺的理解。因此,我相信如果文中的這段話「嚴格來說,聖經並沒有禁止女性在公開 崇拜聚會中對會眾講道。聖經如哥林多前書 14:35 和提摩太前書 2:11 也沒有禁止女性向 男性教導聖經,或公開演講。再說一次,凡是沒有被按立的男性在教會可以做的,女性同 樣可以做」是成立的,它的意思只是從非常粗淺的角度來說,似乎沒有甚麼理由應當禁止 女性在公開崇拜聚會中講道和教導。 However, the next paragraph continues with (line 238) “Beneath the surface however there may be good reason to reconsider.” Here we have another unclear expression in beneath the surface. What does beneath the surface mean? The paragraph raising some very important questions that indicate the practice of women preaching and teaching could; “muddle the truth of God’s created order;” “create confusion about men’s and women’s God-ordained roles in the church;” “cause offense;” and “undermine the leadership of the congregation.” In deciding the role of women in the church, the paper asserts that these potentialities are to be considered since we are to be faithful to the Scriptures. 然而,下一段(從 238 行開始)繼續說到「在這表面的原因底下仍有值得深究的因素」 這裡我們並不是很清楚「表面的原因底下」指的是甚麼?這個段落觸及了一些非常重要的 問題,例如「模糊了神創造次序的真理」、「在神在教會中為男性和女性所設立的角色帶 來混淆」、「造成攻擊」、甚至「削弱了教會的領導」。這篇報告呼籲考慮這些可能的影 響,好讓我們忠於聖經真理。 The paper further affirms that the office of elder and the pastoral office is only open to men. (Lines 245 – 246). Because preaching and teaching in the congregation is so closely identified with the office of elder and pastor the paper advises great care and caution in resolving this matter. This paragraph concludes with another ambiguous expression when it states, “even though Scripture does not expressly forbid a woman to preach to a congregation in public worship.” What is meant by the word expressly is unclear. However, it goes on to recognize a potential misunderstanding of women preaching to a congregation which can be seen “as disregarding what the Bible teaches concerning the roles of men and women in the church.” (Lines 248 – 250) 該報告進一步確認了長老和牧者的職分只由男性出任(245-246 行)。因為堂會中的講道 和教導以及長老和牧者的職分高度地重疊,該文建議要非常小心謹慎地處理這個問題。這 個段落以另一個模糊的方式作結:「儘管聖經並沒有非常明確地禁止女性在公眾崇拜對著 2 6 會眾講道。」這裡的「非常明確」是甚麼意思並不清楚。然而,作者卻也認知到女性對著 會眾講道可能會造成一個誤解,也就是「會被誤認為忽視了聖經中關於男性和女性在教會 中不同角色的教導。」(從 248-250 行) The section concludes by advising congregations to involve women in a manner that “will prevent misunderstandings of the role of the ordained and limits of the non-ordained.” (Lines 251-252) 作者總結這個部分的討論說到建議堂會在接納女性事奉的時候應當採取「避免誤導人對受 按立的角色和對非按立角色限制的認識」的作法(251-252 行) I have noted a number of places where what is presented in lines 231 – 257 is ambiguous and unclear in what is meant and the basis for it. In addition, the section can be heard as saying that on one hand it is permissible for women to preach to and teach congregations and yet on the other hand it is not advisable because it has the potential to be misunderstood as disregarding what the Bible teaches concerning the roles of men and women in the church and also for the sake of love for those who may stumble over this. 我注意到文中 231-257 行間有一些不是很清楚和模稜兩可的地方。除此之外,這個部分的 討論會讓人覺得女性在堂會中講道和教導是可以的,但又不建議這麼做,因為這樣一來會 讓人忽視聖經中關於男性與女性在教會中不同角色的教導,再者也要為了愛心的緣故不要 讓人跌倒。 Therefore, the material presented in lines 231-257 in the “The Role of Women in the Church, 2012” draft paper, as well as the entire paper, needed to be tested by Scripture and reevaluated. The CLBA Theological Council began work on a new paper which would be a teaching resource for the congregations. The new paper “An Exegetical Study of Scripture related to Gender and the Office of Pastor and Elder” was prepared, presented to the CLBA Convention and received in 2014 as A Resource Paper by the Theological Council for the Church of the Lutheran Brethren. 因此,我們需要再一次地從聖經去查驗並思考 2012 年的這份初稿,特別是 231-257 行關 於「婦女在教會中的角色」。路德信友教會的神學委員會開展了另一項報告,供給各堂會 作為教導資源。這篇新的報告「關於性別和牧師/長老職分的一個釋經研究」在 2014 年的 CLBA 年會中發表,並作為神學委員會對於路德信友教會的資源報告。 Teaching Resource Paper: “An Exegetical Study of Scripture related to Gender and the Office of Pastor and Elder” in 2014. 教導資源報告:「聖經關於性別以及牧師/長老職分的釋經研究」,2014 年 2 7 I shall now turn to consider how the resource paper of 2014 addresses the topics that we have reviewed in the 2012 draft paper. 現在讓我來討論 2014 年的資源報告如何處理上述我們 2012 年的報告中的這些主題 1 Corinthians 14:35 on women teaching the Bible to men or speaking in public worship. 哥林多前書 14:35 關於婦女在公開崇拜聚會中對男性教導聖經或發言 The 2014 paper recognizes that women are free to prophesy as is stated clearly in 1 Corinthians 11:5. It is understood that the instructions given in 1 Corinthians 14:33b – 35 are common to all churches and teach that “the women should keep silent in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be in submission, as the Law also says. If there is anything they desire to learn, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is shameful for a woman to speak in church.” The silence enjoined here is not an absolute silence but a silence in regards, to the weighing carefully of the prophecies spoken for “women do not hold the role or function within the church to evaluate these prophecies.” (2014 Paper, Page 26) “Women are not to exercise the authority that is held by the male elders. This passage, along with the clear teaching in 1 Timothy 2:11 ff, demonstrate that the careful weighing of prophecies falls under the churches magisterial function, held by the elders of the church.” (2014 Paper, Page 26) 2014 年的報告認可女性可以自由地作先知講道,正如哥林多前書 11:5 非常清楚地陳述的。 我們知道林前 14:33b-35 的教導適用於所有的教會:「婦女在會中要閉口不言…因為不准 她們說話。她們總要順服,正如律法所說的。她們若要學甚麼,可以在家裡問自己的丈夫, 因為婦女在會中說話原是可恥的。」這裡所謂的閉口不言指的不是絕對的沉默,而是專指 對於先知講道的內容的判斷上「女性並不承擔或行使評斷講道是否符合真道的角色」 (2014 年的文章,頁 26)。「女性並不承擔那些由男性長老所行使的角色。這段經文和 提摩太後書 2:11 同樣表明教會這項莊嚴的職分僅限於教會的長老行使。」(2014 年的文 章,頁 26) What is not considered here is a definition of prophecy and what is the possible relationship between prophecy and preaching. I will consider this in another section of the presentation. 然而這裡並沒有處理的是何謂「先知講道」以及「先知講道」和我們今天的所謂的「講道」 之間是否一樣。我會在接下來的部分討論這個問題。 1 Timothy 2:11 on prohibiting women from teaching the Bible to men or speaking in public worship 提摩太前書 2:11 關於禁止婦女在公開崇拜聚會中對男性教導聖經或發言 2 8 The 2014 paper states that in 1 Timothy 2 verse 11 the silence enjoined is not to be understood in an absolute sense for women were not strictly forbidden to pray or prophesy in public worship as we see in 1 Corinthians 11:5. Rather, “Paul is concerned that the women accept the teaching of the church peaceably – without criticism and without dispute.” The submission that is called focuses “on the relationship of men to women in general incline us to think that this submission in view here also speaks to the submission of women to male leadership in the church.” The paper suggests that an appropriate paraphrase of verse 11 is: “let the women learn … with full submission; but [de] ‘full submission’ means also that I do not permit the woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man.” (2014 Paper, Page 32) The 2014 paper therefore does not agree with the statement given in 2012 where it is stated that verse 11 does not prohibit women from teaching the Bible to men. 2014 年的報告講到提摩太前書 2:11 關於婦女應當沉靜的教導如同林前 11:15 一樣,指的 並不是完全禁止女性在公開崇拜聚會中禱告或是做先知講道,「保羅真正在意的是女性溫 順地接受教會的教導,而不引起批判或是爭論。」這裡對女性順服的要求強調在「兩性的 關係之間,使我們更傾向於認為同樣的原則也適用於教會中女性對男性帶領的順服。」該 文認為 11 節可以改寫為「女人要沉靜學道,一味的順服;這裡『一味的順服』指的是我 不許女人講道,也不許她轄管男人。」(2014 年的文章,頁 32)因此,2014 年的報告並 不同意 2012 年的報告中認為 11 節並沒有禁止女性對男性教導聖經的陳述。 1 Timothy 2:12 on prohibiting women from teaching the Bible to men or speaking in public worship 提摩太前書 2:11 關於禁止婦女在公開崇拜聚會中對男性教導聖經或發言 On this, attention is given to the meaning of “teach.” “While the word teach can be used more broadly to describe the general ministry of edification that takes place through certain kinds of facilitative Bible discussions, singing, praying, and reading Scripture (Colossians 3:16), the activity usually designated by the word teach is plainly restricted to certain individuals who have the gift of teaching authoritatively (see 1 Corinthians 12:28 – 30; Ephesians 4:11). Although teaching in the general sense was not limited to the elder – overseer, it is clear, that teaching in the restricted sense of authoritative doctrinal instruction was reserved for ordained elders, and that those who did so to the congregation at large were not to be women” (2014 Paper. Page 32) 這裡的關鍵在於「教導」的意思。儘管「教導」這個詞可以很廣泛地指涉所有造就信徒的 事奉,例如帶領聖經的討論、唱詩、禱告、和閱讀經文(歌羅西書 3:16),「教導」作 為一個特定的事奉指的通常僅侷限於具有特定恩賜的少數人帶著權柄的教導(如哥林多前 2 9 書 12:28-30;以弗所書 4:11)。雖然教導在一般的意義上不限於教會的監督長老,在比較 狹義的、專指對於教義、並帶著權柄的層面則僅限於教會中被按例的長老,並且這些長老 一般並不由女性擔任。(2014 年的文章,頁 32) The paper continues: “In light of these considerations, Moo argues that the teaching Paul prohibits includes what we would call preaching (note 2 Timothy 4:2, ‘Preach the word… with careful instruction’), and the teaching of Bible and doctrine in the church, in colleges, and in seminaries. He adds that evangelistic witnessing, counseling and teaching subjects other than Bible doctrine are not prohibited in Paul’s injunction forbidding women to teach. Furthermore, based on Titus 2:3 – 4, Paul allows women to teach other women, but prohibits them from teaching men as per 1 Timothy 2:12.” (2014 Paper, Page 33) 文中繼續說到:「在仔細考慮這些面向後,Moo 認為保羅所禁止的包括我們所認為的 『講道』(請注意提摩太後書 4:2,『務要傳道…用各樣的教訓』),以及無論是在教會、 在學校、或在神學院中教導聖經以及教義。」他同時說到福音見證、輔導、和教導非教義 的主題則不在保羅禁止女性教導的範疇中。更進一步說,根據提多書 2:3-4,保羅允許女 性教導其他女性,但禁止他們教導男性,正如提摩太前書 2:12 所言。(2014 年的文章, 頁 33) The paper further quotes Moo approvingly: “Therefore, the prohibitions of verse 12 are applicable to all women in the church in the relationships with all men in the church.” (2014 Paper, Page 34) 這篇文章繼續引用 Moo:「因此,12 節關於女性講道的教導適用於教會中所有的女性」 (2014 年的文章,頁 34) The summary of the 2014 paper speaks to the questions that we have been considering and concludes: “women are not to teach (which as noted earlier would include preaching [my addition]) Christian doctrine to men; and they are not to exercise authority directly over man in the church. The implications of these two restrictions for the ordination of women, as we now understand the meaning of ordination in the Church Lutheran Brethren, are clear for all times, places, and circumstances.” (2014 Paper, Page 37) The 2014 Resource Paper clarifies the ambiguities that were present in the 2012 draft paper and affirms that women are not to teach which would include preaching in a worship service that would include men. 2014 年的報告回答了所有我們討論的問題並以這段話作為結論:「女性不應當對男性教 導(如之前的討論也包括講道)基督信仰的教義;並且在教會中她們不應當對男性行使權 柄。這兩項原則對於女性按牧的意涵,如同今天路德信友教會對按牧的理解,是非常清楚 2 10 的,適用於任何時候、任何地方、以及任何情況。」(2014 年的文章,頁 37)2014 年的 報告澄清了 2012 年的初稿中模糊不清的地方並且確認了女性不應當教導,包括在一個男 性信徒參與的敬拜聚會中講道。 A Biblical Overview of the Pastor/Elder/Overseer Office and Women in the Church 教會中的婦女與牧師/長老/監督的職分:一個聖經的綜述 As we begin this section in which I will give a Biblical overview of the pastor/elder/overseer office in the church, we are faced with the question: How should we approach our study of these questions that are before us? What should inform us as we seek answers to these questions? 在我們要開始討論聖經中關於教會中的婦女和牧師/長老/監督等職分的教導之前,我們首 先要面對的問題是:我們要從甚麼角度切入這個議題?以及當我們尋求這些問題的答案時 甚麼是我們真正需要考量的? It is possible for us to start with our own experience. We may have had a woman serve in the calling of a pastor and she did just as well as a man and maybe in some respects even better. Or, if one is a woman who has served in these ways and experienced positive affirmation and selfsatisfaction, she may conclude that this is an affirmation of God’s calling. The ministry was effective, and people benefited from it. People are coming to believe in Jesus and are growing in Christ. It is working so it must be in line with God’s truth. However, is this where the Scriptures begin in instructing the church when it speaks to the calling of a pastor or someone to preach? 我們很有可能從我們自身的經驗切入這樣的討論。例如我們可能認識一位姐妹她蒙召成為 一位牧師並且她做得不比男性的牧師差,甚至更好。或者,若有一位姐妹透過這樣的方式 服事教會並且得到許多正面的肯定以及自我的滿足,她可能會認定她確實有來自神的呼召, 因為她的事工是有果效的,並且弟兄姊妹得到造就,有人因此信主並且在基督裡成長。因 為這一切都是好的,所以必定是符合神的真理的。然而,關於呼召牧者或個人傳講神的道 聖經是否是這樣教導教會的呢? It is possible to look to the history of the church. There we will find examples of women serving as pastors and preaching. But once again is this where the Scriptures begin? 我們也可以回顧教會的歷史—教會歷史中不乏女性擔任牧師或是講道的例子。但這是否是 聖經的出發點? 2 11 It is possible to start with our spiritual gifts and conclude that since we are gifted, and we know God wouldn’t gift us in this way if he didn’t intend for us to use them. It must be biblical and in agreement with his truth to serve as pastors and preachers for we have been gifted for these ministries and service. However, it is important to ask is this where the Scriptures begin? 我們也能從屬靈恩賜的角度出發並認為因為我有恩賜並且我們知道神給我們恩賜是為了讓 我們去使用這些恩賜。如果這樣的話,按著我所擁有的恩賜擔任牧師或是傳道人必然是符 合聖經並符合真理的。然而,我們依然要問這是否是聖經的出發點? It is possible to start with culture. Here we have the emphasis on equality, rights, and perhaps even success as guides for deciding such questions. We don’t want to put up any obstacles for the gospel to be heard and believed. We conclude that certainly God wants as many people as possible to hear the gospel and believe and therefore to affirm limitations that would be contrary to the values of equality and rights of our culture would be a contradiction. 也有可能我們從文化的角度著手思考。我們強調公平、權利、甚至是成功,而這些價值主 導著我們在這些議題中的立場。我們不希望阻擾福音被世人聽見和相信。我們認為上帝希 望更多的人聽見並相信福音,因此教會那些違反平等和權利等文化所追求價值的限制會牴 觸我們的目標。 Having been brought to faith in Jesus Christ through the gospel of Jesus Christ, it is given to us to hear what our Lord has said. As persons in Christ, it is to him that we are to listen. As God spoke from the cloud on the day of the Transfiguration, “this is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased; listen to him” (Matthew 17:5). What he has given us in his word, the Scriptures, is our starting point; this is what we turn to and we do so as persons who are all ears, eager to hear what he has given and said. 然而我們既是耶穌基督藉著祂自己的福音所買贖回來的,真正重要的是祂怎麼說。作為祂 的百姓,我們應當聽祂的,而不是其他的聲音。正如主耶穌登山變相的那天父神從雲彩裡 說:「這是我的愛子,我所喜悅的。你們要聽他!」(馬太福音 17:5)祂所給我們的話 語,也就是聖經,是我們真正應該在意的;那是我們真正應當轉向的,因為我們作為有耳 可聽的人渴望著神所賜給我們的話語。 We believe and receive that the Bible, including both Old and New Testaments as originally given, is the verbally and plenarily inspired Word of God. It is free from error in the whole and in the part. It is therefore the final authoritative guide for faith and conduct. It is this written word of God that has the priority over all other sources in matters of our own personal lives and also in the life of the church. We believe that this revelation from God is sufficient. 2 12 我們相信並領受聖經,包括全部的舊約和新約,按其起初所寫成,是神所默示,所賜下, 完完全全是祂自己的話語。無論是整體或是一部分都是無誤無謬的。也因此對於我們的信 心和行為有終極的權柄。也因此聖經作為神的話對於我們個人或教會其它一切的考量有更 高的地位。我們相信藉由聖經神的啟示是充分的。 We read and understand and apply the Scriptures according to the plain sense of the text. It is important to be aware of and identify that which might be influencing our reading and interpretation of the Scriptures such as the potential starting points previously named above. We therefore test everything by the Scriptures. This calls for a very serious study of the Scriptures. 我們按著經文最字面的意義閱讀、理解、並應用聖經。非常重要的是我們必須有意識地察 覺到是甚麼在影響我們閱讀並理解聖經,就如同我們前面提到的各樣我們所在意的因素。 我們因此藉著聖經查驗每一件事。這需要我們非常認真地查考聖經。 The Pastor/Elder/Overseer Office Established 牧師/長老/監督職分的建立 I turn now to a brief look at how God established the pastor/elder/overseer office in congregations of the New Testament. We shall consider first that which preceded this office. 現在我很簡單地回顧上帝是如何在新約的教會中建立牧師/長老/監督的職分。我們必須首 先注意到在這些職分被建立前教會是如何運作的。 The Apostles 眾使徒 The public ministry of Jesus begins right after his baptism. Mark records that “Jesus went into Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God. The time has come, he said,’ the kingdom of God has come near. Repent and believe the good news’” (Mark 1:14 – 15; see also Matthew 4:13 – 17; Luke 4:14 – 29)! 耶穌的公開佈道是在其受洗禮後立即開始的。馬可這樣紀錄著「耶穌來到加利利,宣傳神 的福音,說:『日期滿了,神的國近了!你們當悔改,信福音!』」(馬可福音 1:14-15; 另參見馬太福音 4:13-17;路加福音 4:14-29) He called his first disciples Simon and his brother Andrew while they were engaged in fishing. Shortly after Jesus called James the son of Zebedee and his brother John. These four join Jesus in his ministry. At this point they were observing what Jesus did in hearing his message to people along the way. Jesus, seeing “Levi the son of Alpheus sitting at the tax booth, and he said to him ‘follow me.’ And he got up and followed him” (Mark 2:14). 2 13 祂呼召祂的第一位門徒西門和西門的兄弟安德烈,當時他們正在捕魚。不久之後耶穌也呼 召了西庇太的兒子雅各和雅各的兄弟約翰。這四位門徒加入了耶穌的事工。此間他們聆聽 耶穌對眾人的信息也第一手觀察著耶穌的作為。耶穌「經過的時候,看見亞勒腓的兒子利 未坐在稅關上,就對他說:你跟從我來。他就起來,跟從了耶穌。」。(馬可福音 2:14) Jesus then “appointed twelve (so that they might be with him and he might send them out to preach and have authority to cast out demons. He appointed the twelve: Simon (to whom he gave the name Peter); James the son of Zebedee and John the brother of James (to whom he gave the name Boanerges, that is, Sons of thunder); Andrew, and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, and Thomas, and James the son of Alpheus, and Thaddeus, and Simon the Cananaen, and Judas Iscariot who betrayed him” (Mark 3:13-19; See also Matthew 10:2-4; Luke 6:12-16). It is interesting to note that even though women had a very important place in the ministry of Jesus he did not call a woman to be an apostle.1 The Apostles in choosing a replacement for Judas and knew the valued place of women in the ministry of Jesus, including being eyewitnesses of his resurrection which was one of the qualifications for being an apostle. But they also recognized that the person needed to be “one of the men who have accompanied us during all the time that the Lord Jesus went in and out among us” (Acts 1:20d-26), therefore they did not select a woman to be one of the twelve.2 耶穌於是「差遣十二門徒(要他們常與他同在,也要差他們去傳道,並給他們權柄趕鬼)。 這十二個人有西門─耶穌又給他起名叫彼得,還有西庇太的兒子雅各和雅各的兄弟約翰, 1 Carrie Sandom sees this as an affirmation by Jesus of God’s design given in creation. “But the created order also has implications for the roles of men and women in the church family. So while Jesus certainly affirmed the ministry of women, He did not appoint them as His Apostles.” Carrie Sansom 將此視為耶穌對神設立創造次序的 肯定。「但是創造次序對教會做為神的家中男性和女性的角色同樣具有意涵。因此儘管耶穌非常肯定婦女 對事工的參與,祂並沒有差派女性作為祂的使徒。」Sandom, Different by Design. page 59. See also Bertil Gärtner, “Didaskolos: The Office, Man and Woman in the New Testament.” Concordia Journal 8, no. 2 (March 1982): 53-54. 2 Sandom sees this as the Apostles recognizing the design of God’s order given in creation and having implications for the church. “The apostles themselves understood the significance of this and when it came to appointing a replacement for Judas Iscariot (who betrayed Jesus and later hanged himself), they chose a man and not a woman. The man was to be an ear-witness to Jesus’ teaching, from the beginning of His ministry at His baptism to the very end at His ascension; and he was to be an eye-witness to the risen Lord Jesus – someone who had actually seen Him in the flesh after the resurrection. Some of the women who had been with Jesus throughout would, probably, have fulfilled these criteria, but a man, Matthias, was chosen instead. It’s not that the apostles didn’t appreciate the ministry of women; they just knew that they did not have the same function in the body as men.” Sandom 將 這件事視做使徒們認知到上帝在創造中創設的次序並適用於教會中。「使徒他們知道這件事的重要性因此 當他們要選派加略人猶大(他背叛了耶穌並隨後上吊了)的替代者時,他們選擇了一位男人而不是女人。 這個人必須親耳聽過耶穌的教導,從起初耶穌受洗開始其事工到最終耶穌升天都參與在當中,且他必須親 眼見證耶穌基督的復活—必須實際上看過耶穌復活後的肉身的。有一些婦人始終都和耶穌在一起可能可以 符合上述的資格,然而卻是一位男人,馬提亞被選出。這並不是因為使徒們不重視婦女對事工的貢獻;而 是他們知道女性在基督身體中的功能是不同於男性的」Sandom, Different by Design. page 152. 2 14 又給這兩個人起名叫半尼其,就是雷子的意思,又有安得烈、腓力、巴多羅買、馬太、多 馬、亞勒腓的兒子雅各、和達太,並奮銳黨的西門;還有賣耶穌的加略人猶大。」(馬可 福音 3:13-19;另見馬太福音 10:2-4;路加福音 6:12-16)。很有意思的是儘管在耶穌的事 工中婦女有著非常重要的地位,但耶穌卻從來沒有呼召女性做使徒。同樣的,當使徒選立 作為代替猶大使徒職分的人選時,他們完全了解女性在耶穌事工中的重要性,包括是婦女 首先見證了基督的復活,而這是作為使徒的重要條件之一。然而他們依然「在主耶穌在我 們中間始終出入的時候,從那常與我們作伴的人中立一位…」(使徒行傳 1:20d-26),因 此,他們並沒有選擇女性做為十二使徒之一。 The Pastors/Elders/Overseers 牧師/長老/監督 As we move into the Book of Acts, we see the gospel going forth throughout the region and people coming to believe in Jesus the Messiah. To shepherd and oversee the groups of believers God through the Apostles established the pastor/elder office in each of the congregations that came into being through the preaching of the Gospel and now He has committed to the church (local congregation) the responsibility of establishing the pastor/elder office in its midst. 接著當我們再來看使徒行傳,我們看到福音傳遍那些地方且人們進前來相信耶穌是彌賽亞。 為了要牧養和監督各處的信徒,神藉著使徒在每一群會眾中設立了牧師/長老的職分傳講 福音的信息,也因此神賦予教會(地方堂會)設立牧師/長老職分的責任。 The first mention of elders is the Jerusalem elders in Acts 11:30. We do not know when the first elders were established. In Acts 14:21 – 23 we are given a record of how the office of elder was established in local congregations. “ 21 When they had preached the gospel to that city and had made many disciples, they returned to Lystra and to Iconium and to Antioch, 22 strengthening the souls of the disciples, encouraging them to continue in the faith, and saying that through many tribulations we must enter the kingdom of God. 23 And when they had appointed elders for them in every church, with prayer and fasting they committed them to the Lord in whom they had believed.” 聖經中第一次提到長老是在使徒行傳 11:30 中耶路撒冷的長老。我們不清楚第一批長老是 甚麼時候被興起的。在使徒行傳 14:21-23 卻提供我們長老這個職位如何在各地堂會中被 選立的詳實資料:「對那城裡的人傳了福音,使好些人作門徒,就回路司得、以哥念、安 提阿去,堅固門徒的心,勸他們恆守所信的道;又說:我們進入神的國,必須經歷許多艱 難。二人在各教會中選立了長老,又禁食禱告,就把他們交託所信的主。」 The Pastoral Epistles give the most extensive instruction in regards, to the appointment of elders. In 1 Timothy 3:1-7, Paul provides Timothy with a list of qualities that should characterize a person who is being appointed to be an elder. In this chapter Paul introduces the word overseer which we understand to be a synonym for elder. From this passage we also learn that 2 15 the overseer was to be a man (1 Timothy 3:2). In Titus Paul writes to Titus saying, “this is why I left you in Crete, so that you might put what remained into order, and appoint elders in every town as I directed you” (Titus 1:5). It is also clear from Paul’s further instruction on the qualities of an elder that the office was to be filled by men (Titus 1:6). We find no instance of women as elders/overseers in the New Testament. This fits with what we will see in passages that relate to God’s design for order in the church as given in the order of creation. 教牧書信在選立長老上有最詳盡的教導。提摩太前書 3:1-7 保羅向提摩太列舉了一系列的 條件作為被選立的長老應具備的特質。在這一章的經文中保羅同時也第一次使用了監督這 個詞,這個詞就我們的理解是長老的同義詞。在這段經文中我們同樣明白監督必須由男性 擔任(提摩太前書 3:2)。保羅在寫給提多的書信中說到:「我從前留你在革哩底,是要 你將那沒有辦完的事都辦整齊了,又照我所吩咐你的,在各城設立長老。」(提多書 1:5) 同樣的在提多書中保羅所提到關於擔任長老的條件中,長老的職責必須由男性擔任(提多 書 1:6)。在新約聖經中我們沒有看到任何女性做為長老/監督的例子,而這和我們從這幾 段經文中看見神設立教會的次序如同神設立的創造次序是一致的。 The CLBA understands the terms of elder, overseer and pastor as different ways of talking about the same office. In 1 Peter 5:1-5a, the apostle Peter calls himself a fellow elder. He addresses the elders in the church and instructs them to pastor God’s flock by serving as overseers. Therefore, from Peter’s point of view pastor, elder, and overseer all refer to different dimensions of the same office. This is also seen to be the case when Paul addresses the elders of Ephesus at Meletus. “Pay careful attention to yourselves and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit has made you overseers, to care (shepherd/pastor) for the church of God, which he obtained with his own blood” (Acts 20:28). 路德信友教會相信聖經中長老、監督、和牧師等用詞都是關於同一個職分的不同稱呼。在 彼得前書 5:1-5a 中,使徒保羅將自己稱為作長老的。他寫信給那些教會中同作長老的人 並教導他們藉著監督的職分牧養主的群羊。因此,在保羅的觀念中,牧師、長老、和監督 指的是同一個職分的不同面向。同樣的例子也可以從保羅在米利都時對以弗所教會的長老 說的:「聖靈立你們作全群的監督,你們就當為自己謹慎,也為全群謹慎,牧養神的教會, 就是他用自己血所買來的。」(使徒行傳 20:28)。 God’s Design for Order in the Church 神設立教會的次序 The church at Corinth was experiencing divisions, quarreling, immorality, idolatry, and disorder in their congregational life as well as in the gathered worship service. In Paul’s letter of 1 Corinthians, he addresses these issues of this church of God. Our particular focus will be on 1 Corinthians 11:2-14:40 which has its primary focus on the gathered worship service of the congregation. The Apostle Paul sets the questions on these matters “in their larger context: the 2 16 relation to creation, the relation to the Christian life in the world, the connection between the problem and the absoluteness of living en kyrio ("in the Lord").”3 哥林多教會經歷各樣結黨、紛爭、不道德的事、淫亂、以及團契生活乃至於集體崇拜中的 混亂。在哥林多前書中保羅一一處理這間教會中的問題。我們特別需要注意到哥林多前書 11:2-14:40 中主要討論到會眾的集體敬拜。對於這些爭議,使徒保羅從更大的脈絡回答這 些問題:「從創造次序看教會的問題、從基督徒在世上的生活看教會的問題、從在基督徒 完全活在主裡(en kyrio)看教會的問題」。 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 哥林多前書 11:2-16 After commending them because they remembered him in everything and maintained the traditions that he had delivered to them he turns to a truth that he wants them to know and understand. This truth is drawn in part from the nature of the Godhead and creation. He writes: “But I want you to understand that the head of every man is Christ, the head of a wife is her husband, and the head of Christ is God” (1 Corinthians 11:3). Paul is saying that the ordered relationships within the Godhead have significance for the ordered relationships of man and women in the gathered worship. 在簡短讚揚這些哥林多教會的信徒凡事紀念保羅又堅守保羅所傳給他們的,保羅繼續討論 那些他希望哥林多教會知道並了解的真理。這項真理很大一部分來自於創造和神格的本質。 保羅這樣寫到:「我願意你們知道,基督是各人的頭;男人是女人的頭;神是基督的頭。」 (哥林多前書 11:3)。在這裡保羅要說的是神格中所彰顯的關係次序對於兩性在敬拜中 關係的次序是非常重要的。 In Corinth men and women were conducting themselves in worship in a way that did not reflect the ordered relationships given in creation. As Claire Smith has written: 在當時的哥林多教會,男人和女人在敬拜中的行為並沒有反映出神在創造中所彰顯的關係 次序。如 Claire Smith 說的: “Some of the men, it seems, were covering their heads, perhaps as a sign of spiritual one-upmanship. Some of the women were uncovering theirs, perhaps as a sign of their new freedom in Christ, especially since it’s likely their veils were a cultural symbol associated with gender and marriage. By doing so, these men and women were blurring 3 Gärtner, “Didaskolos: 《職分:新約中的男性和女性》The Office, Man and Woman in the New Testament.” Concordia Journal 8, no. 2 (March 1982):52. 2 17 the distinctions between men and women and denying the order in their existing relationships. … 似乎有一些男人有蒙頭的作法,這或許在當時是為了表達一種屬靈上的高人一等。 但卻有一些婦女沒有蒙頭,很可能她們想表達她們在基督裡的新自由,特別當蒙頭 在當時的文化中作為性別和婚姻的象徵。當男人蒙頭而女人卻不蒙頭,兩性之間的 區隔就逐漸消失了,也否認了原本兩性之間既存的關係。 Men and women might be enabled by the same Spirit to pray and prophesy, but they are to do so as men and women, not as unisex, androgynous beings, and not by denying their relationships or the order within them. This is why Paul begins as he does (v. 3), by placing the relationship of men and women within the context of Christ as the head of every man and of God as the head of Christ. In other words, he sets the relationship of man and woman in the context of the ordered relations within the Godhead and in such a way that Christ shares a place with both men and women, as one in authority and one under authority.4 男人和女人都可能被聖靈所驅動在聚會中禱告或是先知講道,但當他們禱告或做先 知講道時,仍然是按著他們男人或女人的身分,而不是「不分男女的」(unisex)、 甚至「雌雄同體」(androgynous),更不應當否認了兩性之間既存的次序和關係。這 也是為什麼保羅將男性和女性間的關係放在基督作為各人的頭、神是基督的頭這樣 的類比中理解。換句話說,保羅將男人和女人的關係透過神格中的關係次序來闡述, 也就是基督同時在女人的角色中是服權柄的,也在男人的角色中是行使權柄的。 This order of relationships between men and women is further developed in 1 Corinthians 11:7- 9: “For a man ought not to cover his head, since he is the image and glory of God, but woman is the glory of man. For man was not made from woman, but woman from man. Neither was man created for woman, but woman for man.” Here Paul is clearly drawing from the creation account where we see God’s order of relationships between the sexes. Claire Smith further states: 保羅在哥林多前書 11:7-9 進一步討論男人和女人之間關係的次序:「男人本不該 蒙著頭,因為他是神的形像和榮耀;但女人是男人的榮耀。起初,男人不是由女人 而出,女人乃是由男人而出。並且男人不是為女人造的;女人乃是為男人造的。」 這裡顯然保羅從創造中神所設立兩性之間的次序著手。Claire Smith 進一步說到: 4 Claire Smith 〈從神的話看女性 〉 “The Word on Women” in Gloria Furman et al., 《滿分的婦女事工:愛和服 事教會》Word-Filled Women’s Ministry: Loving and Serving the Church (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2015): 55-56. 2 18 The issue, it turns out, was not the actual head coverings. It was that by doing what they were doing, these men and women were denying their God-ordained gender differences and relational order, which found its model in the relations of the Godhead. Theology, not culture, shapes Paul’s teaching. Yet that theology was to be expressed in culturally meaningful ways. So while Paul believed both men and women should pray and prophesy, the cultural conventions that expressed gender and relational order were to be maintained even as they prayed and prophesied.5 這個問題實際是不是關於蒙頭與否。而是當時包括男人和女人在蒙頭問題的作法實 質上否認了上帝所設立兩性間的差異和彼此關係的次序;這個差異和次序以神格中 內在的關係為榜樣。換句話說,保羅的教導來自神學而不是文化。然而神學必須透 過文化上可行的方式表達出來。也因此儘管保羅相信男人和女人一樣都可以禱告和 做先知講道,蒙頭作為文化上約定俗成表達兩性之間關係次序的方式需要在他們禱 告和做先知講道的過程中被維護。 This order of relationships is given to us as gift by our Lord for our good and for the good of the church of Jesus Christ. We are to receive it as gift and rejoice in it. In a world of rights we are tempted to not see the order as gift and even to resist what God has given. May he give us grace to understand his design, rejoice in it, and find our place in worship and glorifying our Lord. 兩性關係的次序如同神給我們的禮物,是為了我們的好處,也是為了基督教會的好處。我 們應當以領受禮物並享受其中的方式接受它。在當前這個處處講求權利的世界中我們很難 將次序視為禮物,甚至我們會去抵擋那些神所賜與的。求神給我們恩惠幫助我們認識到祂 的設計的美好、為了這個設計而歡喜快樂、並在其中敬拜和榮耀我們的主。 How can this creation order be expressed in our culture? We recognize that head coverings do not have the same meaning in our culture today as they did in the time of the Corinthians. So, we ask, how can the timeless principle taught in this passage which recognizes gender distinction based on the order of creation express itself in our culture and worship? 這樣的創造次序如何在我們今天的文化中表達呢?在今天的社會中,很顯然蒙頭已經不再 具有當時哥林多教會的意義。因此,我們需要問,這段經文中體現出的那個超越時空限制, 從創造次序出發,關於性別角色原則的教導,如何可能在我們今天的文化和敬拜中表現出 來呢? 5 Ibid. 56. Gloria Furman et al., 《滿分的婦女事工:愛和服事教會》Word-Filled Women’s Ministry: Loving and Serving the Church (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2015). 2 19 We also learned from this passage that both men and women participated in worship by praying and prophesying. Just what is meant by prophesying? Given that Scripture speaks with one voice and does not contradict itself for all Scripture is the inspired word of God we are given to understand prophesying as something different from teaching. Or we need to understand prophesying alongside of 1 Timothy 2:12 as Carrie Sandom writes, so that whatever the women were doing when they prophesied, they weren’t teaching or exercising authority over men. 6 Benjamin Phillips, in a recent study, concludes that prophecy is not to be considered as equivalent to preaching. He states: “the best way forward then, is to see preaching as an analogue to prophecy, characterized by deep commonalities, but also by genuine differences – by both continuity and discontinuity…, Yet we should also affirm that when the word of God is preached faithfully, then the spirit of prophecy is present in the pulpit.”7 我們也從這段經文中看到男人和女人同樣在崇拜聚會中禱告和做先知講道。問題在於甚麼 是先知講道?聖經既是神所默示的且不會自相矛盾的,我們必須知道先知講道並不同於教 導。我們對先知講道的理解必須從提摩太前書 2:12 節來,如 Carrie Sandom 所說的,當女 性在做先知講道的時候,她們並不是在教導或是在轄管男性。在最近的研究中,Benjamin Phillips 總結到做先知講道並不等同於講道。他說到:「最好的方式是將講道與做先知講 道相類比,也就是說兩者有相當一大部分的相同點,但也有非常實質的差異—有些差異是 細微的,也有一些是截然不同的,然而我們也必須清楚的是當神的話被忠實地傳講,先知 講道的靈也同在講台上。」 Paul in 1 Corinthians 14:3-4 writes: “On the other hand, the one who prophesies speaks to people for their upbuilding and encouragement and consolation. The one who speaks in a tongue builds up himself, but the one who prophesies builds up the church.” Carrie Sandom concludes that on the basis of this passage “it could be argued that testimonies, missionary reports, interviews, book reviews, news of summer camps and house-parties would all come under the umbrella of prophecy. In fact, anything that strengthens, encourages and edifies the church but falls short of preaching the Word of God to the gathered people of God would constitute prophesying. 8 保羅在哥林多前書 14:3-4 節這樣說:「作先知講道的,是對人說,要造就、安慰、勸勉 人。說方言的,是造就自己;作先知講道的,乃是造就教會。」從這段經文 Carrie 6 Carrie Sandom, 《來自設計的差異》Different by Design (Scotland, UK: Christian Focus, 2014):164. 7 Phillips, 〈 講台上先知講道的靈:再思講道作為一種形式的預言〉“The Spirit of Prophecy in the Pulpit: Reconsidering Preaching as a Form of Prophecy.” Page 26. 8 Carrie Sandom, 《來自設計的差異》Different by Design (Scotland, UK: Christian Focus, 2014): 165. 2 20 Sandom 總結道,「信仰見證、宣教士的分享、訪談、書評、暑期營會的報導,甚至是家 庭聚會都可以視為是作先知講道的一種。」事實上,任何可以造就、安慰、和勸勉教會但 不算是向著神的眾百姓宣講神的話的,都可以視為是作先知講道。 Claire Smith in her study of prophesying distinguishes the prophecy spoken of here in Corinthians from the prophecy in the Old Testament. She recognizes that the prophecy here is verbal, audible, and intelligible. She distinguishes prophecy from teaching and preaching while recognizing some similarities in purpose, content, and outcome. 9 In an attempt to give a picture of what she would include as prophecy she shares this event. Claire Smith 在她關於先知講道的研究中將哥林多教會中的先知講道,和舊約中先知說預 言區分開來(按:在英文中都是 prophecy 這個字)。她認識到當哥林多教會提到先知講 道,是口語的、能聽見的、並可被理解的。她認為作先知講道和教導或講道並不一樣,儘 管兩者間就目的、就內容上、以及在所造成的結果上都有許多相似之處。在文中她提到了 一個實際發生的事件,提供讀者關於先知講道一個更明確的圖像。 Some years ago at our church, a female missionary shared in the Sunday service what was happening with her work as a missionary doctor in a government-run orphanage in Eastern Europe. She spoke for about ten minutes, and was introduced by the male senior pastor, who also thanked her and prayed for her work at the end. When she finished I leant over and said to Rob, “That was the closest thing to prophecy I’ve heard in this church”. It was intelligible and verbal. It was public. It was focused on the gospel and what God was doing in her life and through her. It was absolutely inspiring. 幾年前在我們教會有一位女性的宣教士在主日的崇拜中分享了她在東歐的一處政府 支持的孤兒院中從事醫療宣教的經歷。她的分享大約有十分鐘,開始分享前由男性 的主任牧師介紹她,並以感謝她並為她的事工禱告作為結束。當她的分享結束後, 我湊上前並告訴 Rob:「這是我在教會中見過最接近所謂作先知講道的一次。」這 個分享是向著會眾的,是能夠被理解,且是口頭的,並且聚焦在福音上,以及上帝 如何在她的生命中工作並藉著她工作。這完完全全是啟迪人心的。 We all learnt things about God’s faithfulness, and about suffering for the sake of the gospel. It carried these truths deep into our hearts. Many of us were rebuked for our comfortable cost-less Christianity, and encouraged as she reflected on certain Scriptures that had given her comfort and strength. But it was clearly not the sermon. The sermon (which was delivered from the pulpit, not the central microphone) followed this ‘missionary update’, and was given by a male leader of the congregation. Now I do not 9 Smith, 《上帝美好的創造》God’s Good Design, 68-70. 2 21 know if Paul or the Corinthians would have called this prophecy, but it fits with the broad description I have just given, and I think if we saw more of this sort of thing in our churches then we would all benefit.10 我們從當中認識到神的信實,也學習為福音的緣故受苦的意涵。這些都讓真理深深 進入我們的心中。我們當中有些人因為舒適的、不須付上代價的基督徒生活在當中 感覺受責備,也因為她分享那些帶給她安慰和力量的經文而感到受激勵。但這很明 確地不是一篇講道信息。真正的講道信息(必須從講台而來,而不是中間的麥克風) 緊接在這個「宣教士分享」之後,並由教會中一位男性的領袖傳講。我並不知道寶 羅或是哥林多教會是否會將這位女宣教士的分享視為先知講道,然而這符合我前面 所提出關於先知講道的描述,並且我相信如果我們的教會中有更多這樣的分享我們 都會從中得到益處。 1 Corinthians 14:26-40 哥林多前書 14:26-40 I turn now to a consideration of 1 Corinthians 14:26-40. In this passage Paul gives us a larger picture of what was happening in their gathered worship. As he says “When you come together, each one has a hymn, a lesson, a revelation, a tongue, or an interpretation. Let all things be done for building up” (1 Corinthians 14:26). Then he outlines a way for in order so that the building up occurs. Once again we note that the participation in worship included both men and women for he says “for you can all prophesy one by one, so that all may learn and be encouraged,” (1 Corinthians 14:31). 現在讓我來查考哥林多前書 12 章 26-40 節。在這段經文中保羅給我們看見當時集體敬拜 的一個更大的圖像。當他說「當你們聚會的時候,各人或有詩歌,或有教訓,或有啟示, 或有方言,或有翻出來的話,凡事都當造就人(哥林多前書 14:26)」。接著他提出了信 徒的建造能夠真正發生的方式。再一次我們發現參與敬拜的同時包括男人和女人,如保羅 說到:「因為你們都可以一個一個地做先知講道,叫眾人學道理,叫眾人得勸勉(哥林多 前書 14:31)。」 In verse 34 Paul writes “the women should keep silent in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, which should be in submission as the Law also says.” We have already noted earlier in the discussion of this passage in regards, to the 2014 paper that most likely this does not refer to an absolute silence during the meeting since earlier in the chapter women are prophesying. A possible interpretation is that women were to be silent at a specific time during the weighing of prophecies. Claire Smith writes “so although the women might well have their own opinions about whether or not a prophecy is the real thing, they are not to participate 10 同前引書 70-71. 2 22 during the weighing.”11 Carrie Sandom offers what she believes to be a more probable explanation. The women were to be silent that is the “limiting of interruptions during the meeting itself. Women are told to ask their husbands at home if there is something they don’t understand – thereby affirming the husband’s role as leader of the family but also ensuring that the public meetings didn’t descend into chaos.”12 34 節保羅寫到:「婦女在會中要閉口不言…因為不准她們說話…正如律法所說的。」我們 已經在前面關於這段經文的討論中注意到,如 2014 年的文章中說的,這段經文所指涉的 可能不是在聚會中完全的沉默,因為就在同一章的前面才講到婦女說預言。一個可能的解 釋是婦女必須在辨別預言的真確性時保持安靜。Claire Smith 寫到「雖然女性對於一個預 言的真確性有自己的意見,她們卻不參與在該討論中。」Carrie Sandom 則提出她認為更 有可能的解釋:女性需要保持沉靜是為了「限制聚會中的擾亂」。女性被要求若有甚麼她 們不明白的應當回家問自己的丈夫—如此一來就不但確認了丈夫在家庭中的帶領角色,更 是要確保公眾的聚會不會成為一團混亂。 Paul states that the Law is the basis for this instruction (1 Corinthians 14:34). The Law is referring to the Pentateuch, the Torah. Paul has already referenced the creation account in chapter 11 and the order of creation as given there, so it is fitting that he in a more specific way references Scripture as his basis for the submission of women which would reflect the order as given in creation. Paul further states that “it is shameful for woman to speak in church.” I believe that it is best to understand this as not meaning absolute silence but the forbidding of speaking that would be the kind of “conduct that undermines or denies God-given gender differences and so reflects badly on everyone.”13 保羅表示這項教導的根據來自於律法(哥林多前書 14:34)。而律法指的是摩西五經,也 就是妥拉。保羅已經在 11 章中引用了創造論和創造次序,可以說在討論婦女順服的問題 上他非常特定地使用聖經作為他立論的基礎。保羅進一步說到「婦女在會中說話原是可恥 的。」我相信這邊指的不是女性必須完全的沉默而是禁止那些「會破壞或否定上帝所規範 的性別差異並因此對其他人帶來不好的影響」。 Paul closes this chapter by saying “But all things should be done decently and in order” (1 Corinthians 14:40). From what we have heard in this section of Paul’s writing, he is clearly concerned with orderliness as opposed to chaos, but he is also concerned that the order that has been given in creation is understood, believed, and followed the life and worship of the church. We have seen how the gathered worship of the church included a wide range of 11 Claire Smith, 《上帝美好的創造》God’s Good Design, 98. 12 Carrie Sandom,《來自設計的差異》Different by Design (Scotland, UK: Christian Focus, 2014):167. 13 Claire Smith, 《上帝美好的創造》God’s Good Design, 100. 2 23 participation of all the saints. We can also note “that the ability to do something does not come with the right to do it.”14 As Smith says “there are greater issues at stake. What is best for the congregation? What promotes order? What does God’s word say about the relationships between men and women?”15 The life of the church and the gathered worship are for the benefit of all and the glory of God. 保羅以下面這句話總結了這段經文「凡事都要規規矩矩地按著次序行」(哥林多前書 14:40)。從我們上述對於這段經文的理解,很清楚地保羅關心的是聚會中的次序並避免 混亂,但同時他也在意所謂的創造次序是否被會眾所理解,相信,並在教會的生活和敬拜 中實踐。從保羅的描述中我們看見教會的集體敬拜包涵著來自背景非常不同的眾聖徒的參 與。我們同時也意識到「有能力做某件事不代表有權利做某件事」。如同 Smith 說的,更 迫切的問題是甚麼對會眾是最好的?甚麼能幫助聚會的次序?上帝如何教導關於男性和女 性間的關係?眾人的教會生活和集體敬拜是為了神的榮耀並使眾人得益處。 1 Timothy 2:11-15 提摩太前書 2:11-15 The apostle Paul wrote this letter to Timothy so that he might “know how one ought to behave in the household of God, which is the church of the living God, a pillar and buttress of the truth” (1 Timothy 3:14 按:應是 15 節). I understand this letter to also be God’s inspired word and given not just for Timothy as he was ministering to the church at Ephesus but for all churches of all time. The passage under consideration is addressing the church in the context of a gathered worshiping community but it’s teaching is not restricted to it. 使徒保羅寫信給提摩太,為了讓他「知道在神的家中當怎樣行;這家就是永生神的教會, 真理的柱石和根基。」(提摩太前書 3:15)。這封神所默示的書信不僅僅是給當時在以 弗所服事的提摩太,同時也是給歷世歷代的眾教會的。雖然這段經文討論的是當時教會在 集體敬拜中的特定情況,這裡的教導卻是普遍的。 In the context of gathered worship Paul writes “Let a woman learn quietly with all submissiveness” (1 Timothy 2:11). The submissiveness that is called for here is not unique to women for the Bible calls all of us to submit to Christ. This submissiveness indicates a willingness to be given to by our Lord through those to whom he has placed over us and given to teach us. It is a submissiveness as a fruit of the gospel. While women are being taught it is given to them to learn quietly. But it is also given to those who are not teaching to receive and submissiveness that which is being taught. 14 前引書, 104. 15 前引書, 104-105. 2 24 論到集體崇拜保羅這樣說:「女人要沉靜學道,一味的順服。」(提摩太前書 2:11)這裡 對婦女順服的要求並不是獨特的,因為聖經同樣要求我們每一個人順服基督。順服在這裡 指的是願意將自己交付給那些我們的主置於我們之上來教導我們。這樣的順服是福音所結 的果子。當婦女被教導的時候,她們應當沉靜學道。然而,同樣的那些不教導人的(男人) 同樣要在聽道時順服而接受。 Paul continues, “I do not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quiet” (1 Timothy 2:12). It is important to remember that Paul has in mind the specific context of a gathered worship in which the household of God gathered together to pray and worship. In this setting it hasn’t been given to a woman to teach, that is, teaching as an authoritative activity with intentional instruction in apostolic doctrine and Scripture. 16 In the New Testament it is not possible to make a hard and fast distinction between teaching and preaching. As Smith writes: 保羅繼續這樣說:「我不許女人講道,也不許她轄管男人,只要沉靜」(提摩太前書 2:12)。我們必須要注意保羅在意的是集體敬拜的獨特之處乃是神家裡的人聚集在一起禱 告和敬拜。在這樣的條件下,女性並沒有被安排教導,因為教導是根據使徒留下的教義和 聖經,帶著權柄和引導目的的事奉。在新約當中,教導和講道之間並沒有明確或簡單的區 別,如同 Smith 寫到: In short, there is no reason to exclude the exposition and application of God’s written word from didask- vocabulary or to conclude that 1 Timothy 2:12 does not apply to our practice of preaching today. That is not to say that didask- vocabulary covers everything that might be included in a sermon – as we have seen, there is scope for a wide variety of speech activities – but teaching remains one of the ways that God’s people learn and are transformed by his word, and hence one of the main responsibilities of those interested with the care and discipline of his household.17 簡短地說,我們不應當將教導(didask-vocabulary)和藉著解經應用上帝的話區分開來, 因此認為提摩太前書 2:12 不適用於我們今天的講道。這並不是說教導包含著所有 講道信息所有的內容—如同我們所知道的,講道有許許多多的表達形式—但是教導 仍然是神的百姓學習神的話語並經歷生命轉化的主要形式之一,也是那些照管並訓 導著神的家的主要職責之一。 Paul also sets forth here that it hasn’t been given to women to exercise authority over a man. This relates to the leadership of the congregation that God has committed to those who serve as pastors/elders/overseers. Therefore, this office has not been given to women. 16 Claire Smith “The Word on Women” in Gloria Furman et al., Word-Filled Women’s Ministry: Loving and Serving the Church (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2015): 58. 17 2 25 保羅同時在這裡闡述女人不應當轄管男人。這裡指涉的是神所賦予一個堂會的領導職 責,包括是牧者/長老/監督。因此,這些職份並沒有交付給女性擔任。 Paul gives the reason for teaching, as used in this context, not being given to women in verses 13 – 14. “For Adam was formed first, then Eve; and Adam was not deceived, but the woman was deceived and became a transgressor.” As we have noted in 1 Corinthians 11 – 14, Paul set forth the teaching and significance of the order of creation. Here Paul returns to the order of creation as one of the reasons for teaching in this context and authority over men in the congregation not being given to women. In 1 Timothy 2:13 Paul is referring to the account in Genesis 2. Cooper and Caballero point out that “it is in Genesis 2:21-23 where the text explicitly states that the woman was taken from the man, thus confirming Paul’s statement that Adam Mark was formed first.”18 They also note that “Secondly, Paul uses the same Greek verb in 1 Timothy 2:13, one that means ‘to manufacture something form, mold,” that is used three times in the LXX Genesis account (2:7, 8, 15).”19 They conclude that “Paul’s deliberate use of the plasso in addition to his explicit reference to Adam and Eve strongly suggests that the Genesis 2 account represents the basis for his prohibition in 1 Timothy 2:12.”20 The significance of this is the following: 保羅在上下文中說明了教導這項職責不應當賦予給女性的理由:「因為先造的是亞當,後 造的是夏娃;且不是亞當被引誘,乃是女人被引誘,陷在罪裡。」如同我們先前提到的哥 林多前書 11-14 章,保羅不斷強調創造次序的重要性。這裡保羅回到創造次序的觀點作為 禁止女性教導和在會堂中一味順服的理由。在提摩太前書 2:13 節中保羅引用了創世記第 二章。Cooper 和 Caballero 指出「在創世記 2:21-23 中很清楚地表明了夏娃是從亞當身體 中取出的,這就應證了保羅說亞當是先造的。」他們同時也注意到「其次,保羅在提摩太 前書 2:13 節中使用了一個希臘文動詞,意思是『模製』,這個動詞在創世記的七十士希 臘文譯本中出現了三次(二章 7、8、15 節)。」他們做出這樣的結論:「保羅在這裡除 了直接提到亞當和夏娃外,還非常刻意地使用 plasso 這個詞,說明了保羅視創世記第二 章的記載為提摩太前書 2:12 禁止女性教導的理由」 Paul’s point seems to be that God directed and shaped Adam’s personal character to be God’s representative, functioning as a priest responsible for leading worship. That is, Adam was originally formed and then placed in Eden for specific purposes, purposes that are especially germane to Paul’s argument in 1 Timothy 2:13. A close reading of the man’s assignment in Genesis 2:15 assists the reader in understanding what the man was created to do: he was to serve and guard. He was formed and shaped to be God’s 18 Marjorie J. Cooper and Jay G. Caballero, 〈論證創造次序作為提摩太前書 2:12 禁令的根據〉“Reasoning through Creation Order as a Basis for the Prohibition in 1 Timothy 2:12” Presbyterian 43/1 (Spring 2017): 37. 19 同前引書. 20 同前引書. 2 26 representative administrator of worship and the spiritual protector of God’s holy sanctuary.21 保羅的觀點似乎是神引導並塑造亞當的人格特質作為神在地上的代表,如同祭司帶領敬 拜的職分。換句話說,亞當被造以及被安置在伊甸園中有個獨特的目的,這個獨特的目 的正如保羅在提摩太前書 2:13 所要論證的。仔細地閱讀創世記 2:15 當中男性的職責我 們將理解男性受造的目的:是為了修理(事奉)和看守。亞當受造是為了成為在上帝神 聖的聖所中作為敬拜的帶領事奉者和屬靈的保護者。 In contrast Cooper and Caballero point out that “Eve was not assigned the primary responsibility for serving and guarding in the garden … She is, however, to be a helper to the man and to facilitate his responsibility.”22 Therefore Paul’s position is that women are not to usurp the job assigned to the man in the context of worship. Thus, in the New Testament church, the woman is not to assume the man’s role of teaching and oversight of the assembly.”23 相反的,Cooper 和 Caballero 指出,「夏娃並沒有被賦予修理看守園子的責任…她的責任 是幫助男人使他能順利完成他的責任」。保羅的立場是女性不應當取代敬拜中賦予給男性 的工作。因此,在新約時代的教會中,婦女並不會擔任教導和監督會眾等由男性擔當的角 色。 A second reason that Paul gives for his instruction here is based on what happened when Adam and Eve fell into sin in the garden. It is clear from God’s word that they both sinned and are therefore accountable before God. I believe that Paul has chosen this as one of the reasons because it indicates what happens when the order of creation is denied and rejected. As Sandom concludes: 其次,保羅如此教導的基礎來自亞當和夏娃在伊甸園中的墮落。聖經中非常清楚的他們兩 位都犯了罪,並且因此必須在上帝面前為自己犯的罪負責。我相信保羅選擇伊甸園的例子 是因為這個例子說明了創造次序被否認和拒絕的後果。 正如 Sandom 所總結的: Whenever the created order is reversed, there is confusion, deception and chaos. When Eve rebelled against the created order, she was deceived by the serpent into thinking that eating the forbidden fruit was actually a good thing to do (Genesis 3:6). Adam also 21 同前引書. 22 同上引書. 37-38. 23 同上引書. 38. 2 27 rebelled against the created order and ate the forbidden fruit, but he was not deceived – the implication being that he sinned openly, knowing that it was wrong.24 任何時候當創造次序被顛覆時,困惑、欺騙、和混亂就會發生。當夏娃違反了創造 的次序時,她被蛇所欺騙,因而認為吃那不該吃的禁果是一件好事(創世記 3:6)。 同樣的,亞當也違反了創造次序並吃了禁果,但他並沒有被欺騙—這意味著他是在 完全知道這是一件錯誤的事情之下公開地犯罪。 Paul does not want to see this pattern which took place in the fall to be repeated and continued. 保羅不希望看到因為人墮落所產生的結果被不斷地重覆和持續著。 Paul does not base his is teaching here on culture nor was it because women would not be able to do quality teaching or would teach heresy if they weren’t properly trained. It is a matter of the order of creation which has been given by God. It is for this reason that this teaching applies to us today as well. 保羅在這裡的教導並不是根據當時的文化,更不是因為女性沒有能力教導或她們的教導有 所偏差。而是因為來自神自己的創造次序。也因為這樣,這樣的教導對於我們今天同樣適 用。 Conclusion 結語 I have given in this paper a response to your questions in regards, to CLBA “The Role of Women in the Church, 2012,” Draft Paper. I have also reviewed the relevant sections of Teaching Resource Paper: “An Exegetical Study of Scripture related to Gender and the Office of Pastor and Elder” in 2014 as they related to the selected topics of 2012 paper. I have also given A Biblical Overview of the Pastor/Elder/Overseer Office and Women in the Church in which I have set forth the biblical reasons for the ordination of persons into the office of pastor/elder/overseer as not being given by God for women. I have also set forth in a brief manner the biblical basis for women not being given by God the calling to teach/preach in the gathered worship service of the congregation. 為了回應您們所提出的問題,我提供「婦女在教會中的角色」這篇 2012 年呈給北美路德 信友教會(CLBA)的初稿報告。我也回顧了 2014 年發表做為本會教導資源的文章「關於性 別和牧師/長老職分的一個釋經研究」的相關內容,這些內容和 2012 年的文章有很多的關 聯。我也在本文中提出了一個關於「教會中的婦女與牧師/長老/監督的職分」的聖經綜述, 在當中我闡述了為何神沒有將牧師/長老/監督等受按立的職分給予女性的聖經根據。我同 樣也簡短地闡述了神並沒有呼召女性在教會公開崇拜聚會中教導或是講道的聖經基礎。 24 Carrie Sandom, 《來自設計的差異》Different by Design (Scotland, UK: Christian Focus, 2014): 156. 2 28 Thank you for this opportunity to give this presentation. May God richly bless you as you continue to study the Scriptures relative to these matters. 感謝各位給我機會做上述的報告。當各位繼續研究聖經中關於相關的主題時,願神豐豐富 富地祝福各位。 2 29 Bibliography Bailey, Kenneth E. Paul through Mediterranean Eyes: Cultural Studies in 1 Corinthians. Downers Grove, Ill: IVP Academic, 2011. Barrett, C. K. The First Epistle to the Corinthians. Black’s New Testament Commentary. Peabody, Mass: Hendrickson Publishers, 1993. 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